The Evidenced Based Curriculum Vitae

Teamarbeit-Dooder-Shutterstock.com_One of the first questions clients usually ask me for is help to create a great CV (or résumé) that will get them the position or role they are want, or need for their career progression. It’s generally a low impact way to seek professional career coaching support for career/job change. It can also be perhaps a “one stop shop” just to start to the process of change. Most people I speak to have read the countless books, reams advice given via social media and the internet or have just relied on what they have done in the past. The big question for me as a geeky psychologist working with careers, is where is the research that will help create that winning CV or résumés consistently time after time?

The sad truth of the matter is there is very little proper empirical evidence about what constitutes a great CV; or even less evidence for that matter for covering letters. Now it could be argued that a great CV is the one that gets you the job or secures you that new role.  That view it is very difficult to argue against of course. However, looking for evidence requires a little more digging to help clients move forward with a CV that they can use as a working document for their future career.

So where to start with the empirical evidence for a great CV? Now research does show that good advice is given for structure of CV such as chronological, functional/skills based or hybrid but there is little known about what to put into the CV (Thomas et al 1999). This suggests that there is plenty of advice out there in books and the internet but it is mostly anecdotal and subjective in nature. Needless to say, recruiters & careers advisors will have a view etc but who is right?

According to Julia Yates (2014) there are three key areas to focus upon

  • Academic qualifications
  • Work experience
  • Extracurricular activities

Depending upon where you are in your career the weighting of these elements will change. For example if you are starting out at work, you will probably place more emphasis upon the extracurricular activities & academic qualification.  However, a more experienced individual will be expected to focus upon the their achievements and work experience. Good grades in your qualifications are worth highlighting, though perhaps where you haven’t done so well may be worth leaving the grades out (Thomas et al 1999).

Brown & Campion (1994) conducted some interesting research with US college students suggesting that if young people wanted to showcase their drive & energy then more or less anything will be acceptable – exam grades, activities at school or achievements at work etc. However, to highlight your social and interpersonal skills then  the after school clubs or where you captained a team seemed to interest employers. Any leadership skills can be highlighted by the evidence you have in a work context of supervising others etc. Interestingly there is no link from this research with sporting achievements and impressing employers.

Clearly, employers are more interested in concrete examples of achievements in a work context rather than self-aggrandising statements. Finding examples of a desirable skill or experiences that match the culture, language and essentials for the job & employer will more than likely impress over and above a list of positive adjectives.  Lastly, Thomas et al(1999) suggested that accomplishment statements (achievements) and a targeted career goal or objective within the CV such as “seeking a sales managers role in a leading confectionary business” helps just as an unspecified one doesn’t.

We also have the vexed question of discrimination and declaring an illness or disability within a CV. There has been some research that indicates that having a declared mental health condition makes the candidate less employable, whereas those with a physical disability were more employable. Though a non-disabled person seemed from the research to be most employable. Notwithstanding the prejudice against men in traditionally female roles and against women in traditionally male roles (Brioult & Bentley 2000). So as you can see CV structure & content is a minefield of advice, evidence, anecdotes and just plain old school illegal discrimination.

So where does this potted history of the scant evidence of CV’s leave us? Well with a lot of advice and anecdotal models but little evidence of that elusive winning CV

Read the rest of the post here at Bright Sparks Coaching Blog

Bibliography

Bright, J (2010) “Brilliant CV: What Employers Want to See and How to Write it” Prentice Hall; 4 edition

Fennah, P. (2014) “The Elite MBA CV; Executive Impact” bookboon.com (pp 71)

Lees, J. (2013) “Knockout CV: How to Get Noticed, Get Interviewed & Get Hired” McGraw-Hill Professional

Mills, C (2015) “You’re Hired! CV: How to write a brilliant CV” Trotman

Yates, J. (2014) “The Career Coaching Handbook” Routledge, Abingdon UK.

References

Bricout, J. C. and Bentley, K. J. (2000) Disability status and perceptions of employability by employers. Social Work Research, 24(2): 87.

Brown, B. K. & Campion (1994) “Biodata phenomenology: Recruiters perceptions and use of biographical information in résumé screening” Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(6): 897-908

Fennah, P. (2014) “The Elite MBA CV; Executive Impact” bookboon.com (pp 71)

Thomas, P., McMasters, R., M.R. and Domowski, D.A. (1999) “Résumés characteristics as predictors of an invitation to interview”. Journal of Business and Psychology 13(3): 339-356

Yates, J. (2014) “The Career Coaching Handbook” Routledge, Abingdon UK.

Read more blogs on this and many other career and work related subjects like this atBright Sparks Coaching

David Dean is an award winning independent Work, Career & Coaching Psychologist, blog writer, work psychology tutor & speaker on areas of psychology that make your career and workplace a better place to be.

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Disclose or not to Disclose?

download (13)So you have a disability or have a long-term health condition and are looking to pick up your career, perhaps starting out at work or would just like a job – do you feel confident employers will see past your condition? You have the knowledge, skills and abilities in your CV for the role but do you disclose your disability or health condition? To disclose or not this is the question. Having worked with disabled people and individuals with long-term health conditions for many years, these and many other questions stop or hinder applying for work and getting back to a career.

Indeed recent research from greatwithdisability suggests that 76% of students are reluctant to open about their disability or long term health condition. However the research did find that 57% of respondents recognised the benefits associated with being open and honest about their disability/long term health condition from the start of the process. Needless to say, these decisions for any person with a disability or enduring health condition are intensely personal and sometimes difficult to overcome.

The definition of a disability according to the Equality Act 2010 here in the UK, is a physical or mental impairment that has a substantial and long-term negative effect on someone’s ability to do normal daily activities. The range of disabilities and long term health conditions identified is fascinating for a non-disabled person. ADHD, Autism, Acquired Brain Injury, Bi Polar through to Visual Impairment are amongst many that people navigate and manage in their daily lives at work.

So what is the best way to approach applying for work or progressing your career with a disability or enduring health condition?

Disclose or Not?

  • Employment & disability employment advisers will give conflicting advice on disclosing in your CV/covering letter or application form – some say yes some say no. Perhaps the easiest choice for some is no. However, you may be missing a vital opportunity to highlight how you overcome daily challenges and still push on to achieve your ambitions and goals. The choice is made easier if the organisation you are applying to are registered with the Guaranteed Interview Scheme. You just tick the box and if you meet the minimum requirements then mechanisms will be in place for you to gain an interview. So the choice is not easy but well worth considering.
  • Lastly, being open at the outset will no doubt help the employer make those “reasonable and practicable adjustments” for you both at the interview and to their workplace should you gain the role. Helping the employer help you through being open & honest about your condition or disability highlights a level of self-awareness which shouldn’t be ignored.

The Interview

  • So you have got yourself in front the interviewer or interview panel now what. If you have disclosed your disability then they will be prepared and ready to give you the best opportunity to shine. Well that’s the theory of course. Many employers may need support with disability awareness to stay on the right side of equality and diversity legislation for example. Having supported many employers with many disabled and people with health conditions it is as tricky for them as it is for the disabled person to navigate the interview properly. So if the groundwork between interviewer and interviewee has been done, everyone can get past the condition at the outset so that it enables the interview to go without surprises. Notwithstanding, giving the candidate the opportunity to tell the organisation why they would be foolish not employ you!

Moving on through your career with a disability or long-term health conditions

However difficult it may be, being open about disclosure and honest right throughout the application process and onward with your career, could well be the right way to go. Disability & long-term health conditions are wide and varied so will effect people in many different ways. So with more people with these conditions at work it can only be of benefit to all concerned and pave the way for others following on. Work is a healthy place to be, it can aid recovery and rehabilitation, provides focus and a sense of fulfilment to all let alone those with disabilities and long-term health conditions.

Also by being at work in a variety of businesses and organisations, with any number of health conditions or disabilities, there is a distinct chance you get the chance to remove prejudice and raise the awareness of being enabled by being disabled. So I guess the message is, if work or picking up a career is an option for you then be brave and show how talented you are regardless how others may see you. You have a lot to offer and it may be that the dilemma of disclosure or not is the only thing that is holding you back in the end?

I can’t get no…………Job Satisfaction.

images (31)On a recent trip to my local discount supermarket, my attention was drawn to members of the staff team looking, well, thoroughly miserable and bored with being at work. They seemed to be just going through the motions, no eye contact with customers or co-workers, no smiles or any joy in being there. Now I do appreciate it is a supermarket and it may not be the type of job that makes you bound out of bed singing hallelujah and praise be to be going to work. However, it seems to be a common theme that runs through all members of this staff team. Its almost as though the business is made more difficult by having customers in the store rather than an opportunity to engage with your customers & co-workers and enjoy yourself more. For my sins, I have visited supermarkets in many different countries, and enjoy a rummage around the shelves, as seems to help me to get into the culture of the place and understand the people a little better. My local discount supermarket seems to stand head an shoulders above all others as being a miserable and unsatisfying place to work. The impression then is one of no fun, targets to meet, productivity to maintain and encouraged not to bother customers with any contact what so ever.  For risk of not loading the shelves or getting customers through the checkout in record time.

So that got my juices flowing in what constitutes job satisfaction, do we all have it, or have a right to be satisfied in what we do. Is it the case we have some jobs just for the money – so head down and just get the shift done, smile and take the money. Or is there more to life at work that we should be looking for and ensuring is in place to help us make the most of what we do, more to the point why we do what we do.

Job satisfaction is important not just because it boosts enjoyment, happiness and work performance but it also increases our quality of life at work and home. Many people spend so much time at work that when it becomes highly dissatisfying, the rest of their life soon follows suit. Studies from psychology suggest that the top satisfiers are:-

  1. Fair Pay – Whatever job you do, for you to be satisfied the pay should be fair. The bigger the perceived difference between what you think you should earn and what you do earn the less satisfied you’ll be.
  2. Sense of achievement – we feel more satisfied with our jobs when we have achieved something. As smaller cogs in larger machines it may be difficult to tell what we’re contributing.
  3. Positive feedback – Getting negative feedback can be very painful but at least it tells you where you can improve. On the other hand positive feedback can make all the difference to how satisfied people feel in their jobs.
  4. Variety – To be satisfied people need to be challenged a little and they need some variety in the tasks they carry out. It sounds easy when put like that but many jobs offer neither complexity nor variety such as our discount supermarket.
  5. Control – If people aren’t given any control, they may well attempt to retake it by finding other ways to undermine the system. Psychologists suggest that people who work in jobs where they have little latitude find their work very stressful and consequently unsatisfying.
  6. Support from the organisation – Workers want to know their organisation cares about them, that they are getting something back for what they put in. This is primarily communicated through how the managers treat us etc. Generally if people perceive more organisational support, they experience higher job satisfaction.

When you look at this list of what makes for a satisfying jobs, it makes you wonder why everyone can’t have one. With a little thought and motivation by HR & management, most of the predictors of job satisfaction can easily be provided. However, the answer is as you can probably appreciate not quite that simple.

Organisations tend pay lip-service to keeping their employees satisfied, but many don’t really believe or have objective measures to know it makes a difference. What research shows us is that it can make a huge difference. If you’re a business is looking to improve job satisfaction in a workplace then start with the list noted above and work through them to reflect upon where you and the workforce are with workers job satisfaction. It may not appear to be much but it will make a huge difference to people on the shop floor and hopefully my local discount supermarket with be a nicer place for me and the workforce to be.

 

Image http://www.seven-health.com/

The Home Workers Strategy (whilst still having a life)

A messy desk at homeA lot of people tell me that moving toward home working is easy, just decide one day that its going to happen and there you go…………..right? Without a plan and thinking thoroughly about your run and jump into home working you might want to think again. Interested well read on.

Many organisations for lots of different reasons close offices and decide that the workforce can work from a home base. Generally there is a shrug of the collective shoulders, you pick up your laptop, a phone and off you go. No planning, no discussions at home of what it may mean to the family or how you will manage the available space.

Mum’s and Dad’s going back to work after a baby might not want to be away from their precious one, so this options will help them get back to the work they love. Again jumping in with both feet might work but when you plan the home working thing with work and family in mind its potentially a win win situation.

Here is a quick check list of things I use to help business and individuals move positively toward home working bliss.

  • Get the right technology and support for technology sorted out quickly. Being on your own to sort out broken computers, sufficient broadband, mobile phone signal etc can be challenging. Make sure you have a back up system for both files and hardware , so the stress of things going pop is reduced.
  • Talk to the family. Ensure that families and especially children understand what is happening. Let them have their input into the transitional process.
  • Decide on where you will situate your office space. This goes back to families once more, as excess clutter and paper work can cause quite a lot of stress and conflict. A corner of a living room is fine but what disturbance will you get and what hours will you be able to work most productively without being bothered?
  • If you are lucky you can convert a bedroom or garage. Again spend time planning and setting this out so you feel you are at work and away from home.
  • Commute to work. Yes I know you are working at home but a trip to the newsagents or bakers in the morning helps you get your head in the right space for work.
  • Decide upon how to maintain your social connections. Meet colleagues at the many hotels with lobbies that have coffee shops and catch up with friends when you can.
  • Do not get dragged into working too long – presenteeism is a serious problem for home based working.
  • Keep technology away from the bedroom and yes I mean phones, TV’s and computers. You need your sleep to be effective at work and yes that means home based workers too.
  • Start a homeworkers coffee morning or lunch club. Great for small business owners to mix, get ideas & network.
  • Most of all enjoy the home working experience. Enjoy the flexibility and the chance for a better lifestyle for you and your family. Plus with planning get a great deal of work done whilst sitting at home.

So all is not lost for home based working just needs a bit of careful planning and bit of negotiation and most of all commitment to make it work. Good luck and most of all have fun with the change to more flexible working.

Call or email me for details of my strategies for successful home working and my upcoming book “How to Work at Home & Stay Sane”

The Natural Selection of Business & Careers

download (3)Now I am sure we all know the Darwinian model of natural selection & the five theories contained within. If you need a short reminder have a quick look at this very informative web site run by Christ’s College in Cambridge http://darwin200.christs.cam.ac.uk/pages/ (accessed 3/11/2014). So the question is how can these theories be applied to shedding an alternative light upon how businesses evolve and how your career “fits” the environment, the shifting sands of time, skills and your ability to “mutate” into a new job or career path.

Coupled Darwin’s theory and the term “survival of the fittest” developed by Herbert Spencer to help explain his understanding of natural selection, we arrive at everyday terms to describe how life and for that matter business & careers can (in theory) develop. Needless to say these theories have been hijacked to fit may different ideologies and moral standpoints to sometimes disastrous effect. Such as Social Darwinism that is thought to be responsible for laissez-faire attitudes to war, economics & racism.

The Business of Natural Selection

By this time I am sure your imagination is starting to make the connections between natural selection, survival of the fittest and how businesses & careers are born, develop and sometimes die. Businesses have to compete for resources, evolve through small but distinct stages and that some variants or mutations may help them adapt better to their environment. Apple is a good example of a variation that produce many products that are internally similar to other technology companies (Mp3 players, PC’s, laptops, etc) they just do things differently with distinct styling and pretty boxes. Thus have mutated into a distinct species within the landscape. Its a high wire act and difficult to maintain, as if the mutation looses its distinct adaptation to the environment then they become generalists.

The generalists are other technology companies struggling for resources (profit). These generalists are all fighting for the same slice of the market so have to be nimble, agile and smart to fit products to business opportunities that arise. Products are not generally high value items such as Apple products but more standard offerings that will be less expensive but high volume to make the margins. Similar to species of birds, mammals & rodents – all fighting for the same meagre resources to survive in changing environments. Its hard for both generalists & specialists to survive as there has one eye on changing climates and barriers to their success. Competition is tough for businesses as with species of animals & plants are after the same resources unless they can evolve to adapt before others or sadly die out. I am sure as you are reading this you can apply similar stories to businesses & market sectors that you know? Of course there is nothing more compelling than a good theory – just reality gets in the way!

How does your Career “Fit”

The term “fit & fitness” can of course mean many things but in terms of your career we can use the theory to overlay your skills, abilities, knowledge of your job and how your career trajectory fits into the changing landscape of work. I wager you job or work is not the same as it was a few years ago and that you and your work is evolving steadily. Your job may have been made redundant in the past and had to make significant adaptations of your skills and abilities through re-training or re-branding yourself into a distinctly new career species? There are many ways that your evolution and you may have been naturally selected to give your career and working life an advantage.

The big question is now – does your skill set and career fit with where you need to be? Do you perhaps take a risk and mutate into a new career path or do you find new and novel adaptations to re-invent yourself to help maintain your competitive edge? To that aim I have put together a list of actions to help consider your evaluation career options and interested to hear what else your would add?

  • Identify what works well for you that gives you a competitive edge. May be a skill, an ability, an easy way of doing things others find hard, or even just a different way of thinking. Is it truly an advantage? Does it give really you an edge? Can you repeat it and give you that competitive edge?
  • Now that you have found it – cultivate it deliberately. Refine it, add to it & focus on it. Move on from those things you don’t do so well, build that competitive advantage and not trying to catch up with what others find easier than you do.
  • Now you have found and developed one great career adaptation, find another and keep repeating the process. Create as many natural advantages as you can. See what works and go with it, regardless of whether it’s what you expected or not.
  • Always spend time doing what you do best. Don’t forget your positive attributes, skills and knowledge, ignore them are your peril. By identifying development areas you are aiming to support your strengths enabling you to evolve positively.

Hopefully the short list will help with the adaptations as no species has ever thrived by working on its weaknesses and forgetting about its natural strengths. Don’t try to go against the way that natural selection works with careers and business – go with it and prosper. Creating your competitive edge, overcoming barriers, exploiting your natural attributes and planning for your future will no doubt help you (or your business) see environmental changes as a challenge so you can adapt and manage change effectively. So don’t be a Panda eeking out an existence on bamboo alone – be more…………………………….you fill in the gap!

Stick or Twist Careers – Finding Meaning at Work

images (40)Did you know in the pre-industrialised world there were around 30 different jobs to do. You might well have made things such as barrels, worked leather, a potter or looked after horses – you get the picture. Pretty straightforward jobs to earn a living.

However at the last count today there are approximately 12,000 different jobs and occupations (Krznaric 2012). So its no wonder people are confused about how to find a job or career that is fulfilling that will match our values, talents, identity and passions. Our working life and career paths have taken on greater meaning to us all. Maybe wrapped up in status anxiety and the power we feel is necessary for us in certain roles and life stage. Perhaps all this business of careers is just a modernmiddle class conceit; as when the bills and a mortgage needs to be paid any job will do right? Tricky sociological & philosophical questions to answer and certainly one I am not willing to explore here.

Clearly we have more and more choice in our careers and working lives today. Though the paradox of more choice is that we tend to become more risk averse and paralysed about making the wrong choice. Just choosing biscuits for me is the ultimate paralysis though analysis recently. Is it price, chocolate content, brand, dunkability and so on and so on!

Statistics show 2-4 years is about the time we spend in one job before moving on, thus putting us in a perpetual career/work transition phase and having to re-invest ourselves time after time.

So how do you find a job or career choice that has a good match for where you are in your life? Perhaps you are starting out and just wanting to get onto the career ladder or at a stage where you are looking for something more meaningful to do with your time. Do you specialise or spread you net over a range of roles called a wide achiever? In the meantime here are a few things to think about that may help the focus on finding a job with meaning that will fulfil and sustain you – and I will leave you to decide upon what constitutes meaning, fulfilment and what will sustain you in your work.

  1. If you just need a job plan then implement. Apply your skills, abilities, knowledge & experience etc to fitting an industry, trade or career path and get things moving quickly. Get the CV out there, network and find the people who can connect you to those business looking for new recruits. This method may not help you find the “special” role but it will help you move forward.
  2. Getting into a job will help you know what you like and not like in a job or career. You may find that things don’t necessarily match your identity, beliefs, values and passions but you are getting experimenting with work. Trying different jobs and career paths will help build up your experiential learning about the workplace and where you see your future.
  3. Start some voluntary work (if you can) that fits with where your passion lay, if not being satisfied in your current job or career. It may lead on to different opportunities and help you know if your passions are a lovely fantasy or a reality. If the thought of changing career is scary try this model to start the process of change and becoming less risk averse.
  4. Spend time in a career or job that you had never previously thought of. As suggested my Roman Krznaric in his 2012 book How to Find Fulfilling Work a “radical sabbatical”
  5. Lastly, and not for the feint hearted – act first and reflect later (Krznaric, 2012). This may be for the more confident amongst us as going with a career or job that isn’t necessarily planned and thus implemented upon as mentioned before may be a step too far. Though if there is an opportunity to just “feel the fear and do it anyway” you may find that this will open your working world view to career experiments that you had not thought of in your planning phase of career management.

So there we are that’s enough careers and work navel gazing for the time being. Though these big questions are being asked by people, employees and progressive organisations in recent years. Progressive organisations are helping employees become more meaning focussed by allowing them to engage in more diverse projects and outward facing working.

So as Chris Baldry et al in The Meaning of Work in the New Economy, suggest “Nobody wants their job to have no meaning, even if the primary or indeed onlymeaning is its economic support for home and family.’ It may be time to allow yourself some navel gazing toward a more progressive approach to you career and perhaps trying a few interesting working experiments to see where your passions lay?

Bibliography & References

Botton, A. (2009) “The Pleasures & Sorrows of Work” Penguin Books, London

Krznaric, R. (2012) “How to Find Fulfilling Work” Macmillan

Baldry, C. et al (2007) “The Meaning of Work in the New Economy” Palgrave Macmillan

The Printers Apprentice – A Zig Zag Career.

images (36)So is you career linear – a very straight line or like mine and many others a zig zag affair? I have been at work now for more years I care to remember and in that time I have had 16 different jobs. Adding fuel to the average time of 2 – 3 years people spend in a role. Most of my jobs were loosely connected with transferable skills applied from one industry to another and to an opportunity that I was either flattered to asked to interview, or needed the money for one reason or another. So how does a career work, is it planned or does it just happen to people……..that is the question.

This navel gazing came about as a result of an interesting article by Peter Honey and on LinkedIn recently; on the sometimes zig-zag approach a lot of us take to our careers or working life.

So where did I start off? With my headmasters parting words “and don’t come back”ringing in my ears I left school at the tender age of 16. Having to leave school for being a little bit of a rascal and a tearaway was a badge of honour at the time – though it didn’t last long. Dole money in the 1970’s was £7.70p, enough to give my mother £5 and to fill up the petrol tank of my motor bike for a week or so. Then things changed. After a few months of unemployment I managed to secure a 4 year apprenticeship as a lithographic printer in a Kent based print works, Whitstable Litho.

With the indentures signed by my father and the company to ensure I was not to be seen with loose women (some chance) or drunk in the street, I felt 7 feet tall and finally had a purpose. All this for £18.50 per 40 hour week. How innocent I was for the fun and exposure to an adult working life to come.

The apprentice lithographer title was one I would feel justifiable proud of until returning from the London School of Printing, Clarkenwell one evening. During the train journey and sitting opposite a chap who was a little 3 sheets to the wind (drunk to the uninitiated) asked me what I did for a living. I proudly announced and loud enough for the carriage to hear that I am a apprentice lithographer. The chap thought for a few seconds, eyes wandering desperately trying to make sense of the answer. Eventually through his sozzled haze he slurred with some difficulty – “and I am a photographer to”! I left it there and stared through the condensation of the train window deflating slowly like a old party balloon.

I didn’t plan to become a printer, work in the paper industry research & development, customer technical sales/services, manage international technical development teams, develop training/L&D for sales and management, quality systems, environmental science, run large coaching programmes for sales performance & design Welfare to Work health & wellbeing programmes etc etc. Or even have the faintest idea I would end up as a psychologist & coach with a couple of degrees, helping countless people manage a number of different work & personal issues. So how do careers work and how do people navigate their way through any number of sometimes loosely connected jobs to end up where they are today?

Few people emerging from university or school have any idea what they want to do, if they do perhaps they have had great career advice, coaching & guidance. Perhaps its all about personality as some psychometric developers will tell you. I very much doubt it.

The career or working life that fits the bill at your life stage and is unplanned is some ways quite reassuring. We are all told to plan and try to control every aspect of our lives to win the prize of a glittering career, money or other desired goals. The problem is that our ability to control really stops at the end of our fingertips. We can only control ourselves and in my case that can be a bit slippery. So over to you to have a cogitate about your career or work and how it zig zagged across the years. Or perhaps you are a linear careerist that are travelling from A to B to C to D with no hindrance. In any case I will leave you with this quote from Peter Drucker that will hopefully start your conversation.

“Successful careers are not planned. They develop when people are prepared for opportunities because they know their strengths, their method of work, and their values.” – Peter F. Drucker