The Evidenced Based Curriculum Vitae

Teamarbeit-Dooder-Shutterstock.com_One of the first questions clients usually ask me for is help to create a great CV (or résumé) that will get them the position or role they are want, or need for their career progression. It’s generally a low impact way to seek professional career coaching support for career/job change. It can also be perhaps a “one stop shop” just to start to the process of change. Most people I speak to have read the countless books, reams advice given via social media and the internet or have just relied on what they have done in the past. The big question for me as a geeky psychologist working with careers, is where is the research that will help create that winning CV or résumés consistently time after time?

The sad truth of the matter is there is very little proper empirical evidence about what constitutes a great CV; or even less evidence for that matter for covering letters. Now it could be argued that a great CV is the one that gets you the job or secures you that new role.  That view it is very difficult to argue against of course. However, looking for evidence requires a little more digging to help clients move forward with a CV that they can use as a working document for their future career.

So where to start with the empirical evidence for a great CV? Now research does show that good advice is given for structure of CV such as chronological, functional/skills based or hybrid but there is little known about what to put into the CV (Thomas et al 1999). This suggests that there is plenty of advice out there in books and the internet but it is mostly anecdotal and subjective in nature. Needless to say, recruiters & careers advisors will have a view etc but who is right?

According to Julia Yates (2014) there are three key areas to focus upon

  • Academic qualifications
  • Work experience
  • Extracurricular activities

Depending upon where you are in your career the weighting of these elements will change. For example if you are starting out at work, you will probably place more emphasis upon the extracurricular activities & academic qualification.  However, a more experienced individual will be expected to focus upon the their achievements and work experience. Good grades in your qualifications are worth highlighting, though perhaps where you haven’t done so well may be worth leaving the grades out (Thomas et al 1999).

Brown & Campion (1994) conducted some interesting research with US college students suggesting that if young people wanted to showcase their drive & energy then more or less anything will be acceptable – exam grades, activities at school or achievements at work etc. However, to highlight your social and interpersonal skills then  the after school clubs or where you captained a team seemed to interest employers. Any leadership skills can be highlighted by the evidence you have in a work context of supervising others etc. Interestingly there is no link from this research with sporting achievements and impressing employers.

Clearly, employers are more interested in concrete examples of achievements in a work context rather than self-aggrandising statements. Finding examples of a desirable skill or experiences that match the culture, language and essentials for the job & employer will more than likely impress over and above a list of positive adjectives.  Lastly, Thomas et al(1999) suggested that accomplishment statements (achievements) and a targeted career goal or objective within the CV such as “seeking a sales managers role in a leading confectionary business” helps just as an unspecified one doesn’t.

We also have the vexed question of discrimination and declaring an illness or disability within a CV. There has been some research that indicates that having a declared mental health condition makes the candidate less employable, whereas those with a physical disability were more employable. Though a non-disabled person seemed from the research to be most employable. Notwithstanding the prejudice against men in traditionally female roles and against women in traditionally male roles (Brioult & Bentley 2000). So as you can see CV structure & content is a minefield of advice, evidence, anecdotes and just plain old school illegal discrimination.

So where does this potted history of the scant evidence of CV’s leave us? Well with a lot of advice and anecdotal models but little evidence of that elusive winning CV

Read the rest of the post here at Bright Sparks Coaching Blog

Bibliography

Bright, J (2010) “Brilliant CV: What Employers Want to See and How to Write it” Prentice Hall; 4 edition

Fennah, P. (2014) “The Elite MBA CV; Executive Impact” bookboon.com (pp 71)

Lees, J. (2013) “Knockout CV: How to Get Noticed, Get Interviewed & Get Hired” McGraw-Hill Professional

Mills, C (2015) “You’re Hired! CV: How to write a brilliant CV” Trotman

Yates, J. (2014) “The Career Coaching Handbook” Routledge, Abingdon UK.

References

Bricout, J. C. and Bentley, K. J. (2000) Disability status and perceptions of employability by employers. Social Work Research, 24(2): 87.

Brown, B. K. & Campion (1994) “Biodata phenomenology: Recruiters perceptions and use of biographical information in résumé screening” Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(6): 897-908

Fennah, P. (2014) “The Elite MBA CV; Executive Impact” bookboon.com (pp 71)

Thomas, P., McMasters, R., M.R. and Domowski, D.A. (1999) “Résumés characteristics as predictors of an invitation to interview”. Journal of Business and Psychology 13(3): 339-356

Yates, J. (2014) “The Career Coaching Handbook” Routledge, Abingdon UK.

Read more blogs on this and many other career and work related subjects like this atBright Sparks Coaching

David Dean is an award winning independent Work, Career & Coaching Psychologist, blog writer, work psychology tutor & speaker on areas of psychology that make your career and workplace a better place to be.

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I can’t get no…………Job Satisfaction.

images (31)On a recent trip to my local discount supermarket, my attention was drawn to members of the staff team looking, well, thoroughly miserable and bored with being at work. They seemed to be just going through the motions, no eye contact with customers or co-workers, no smiles or any joy in being there. Now I do appreciate it is a supermarket and it may not be the type of job that makes you bound out of bed singing hallelujah and praise be to be going to work. However, it seems to be a common theme that runs through all members of this staff team. Its almost as though the business is made more difficult by having customers in the store rather than an opportunity to engage with your customers & co-workers and enjoy yourself more. For my sins, I have visited supermarkets in many different countries, and enjoy a rummage around the shelves, as seems to help me to get into the culture of the place and understand the people a little better. My local discount supermarket seems to stand head an shoulders above all others as being a miserable and unsatisfying place to work. The impression then is one of no fun, targets to meet, productivity to maintain and encouraged not to bother customers with any contact what so ever.  For risk of not loading the shelves or getting customers through the checkout in record time.

So that got my juices flowing in what constitutes job satisfaction, do we all have it, or have a right to be satisfied in what we do. Is it the case we have some jobs just for the money – so head down and just get the shift done, smile and take the money. Or is there more to life at work that we should be looking for and ensuring is in place to help us make the most of what we do, more to the point why we do what we do.

Job satisfaction is important not just because it boosts enjoyment, happiness and work performance but it also increases our quality of life at work and home. Many people spend so much time at work that when it becomes highly dissatisfying, the rest of their life soon follows suit. Studies from psychology suggest that the top satisfiers are:-

  1. Fair Pay – Whatever job you do, for you to be satisfied the pay should be fair. The bigger the perceived difference between what you think you should earn and what you do earn the less satisfied you’ll be.
  2. Sense of achievement – we feel more satisfied with our jobs when we have achieved something. As smaller cogs in larger machines it may be difficult to tell what we’re contributing.
  3. Positive feedback – Getting negative feedback can be very painful but at least it tells you where you can improve. On the other hand positive feedback can make all the difference to how satisfied people feel in their jobs.
  4. Variety – To be satisfied people need to be challenged a little and they need some variety in the tasks they carry out. It sounds easy when put like that but many jobs offer neither complexity nor variety such as our discount supermarket.
  5. Control – If people aren’t given any control, they may well attempt to retake it by finding other ways to undermine the system. Psychologists suggest that people who work in jobs where they have little latitude find their work very stressful and consequently unsatisfying.
  6. Support from the organisation – Workers want to know their organisation cares about them, that they are getting something back for what they put in. This is primarily communicated through how the managers treat us etc. Generally if people perceive more organisational support, they experience higher job satisfaction.

When you look at this list of what makes for a satisfying jobs, it makes you wonder why everyone can’t have one. With a little thought and motivation by HR & management, most of the predictors of job satisfaction can easily be provided. However, the answer is as you can probably appreciate not quite that simple.

Organisations tend pay lip-service to keeping their employees satisfied, but many don’t really believe or have objective measures to know it makes a difference. What research shows us is that it can make a huge difference. If you’re a business is looking to improve job satisfaction in a workplace then start with the list noted above and work through them to reflect upon where you and the workforce are with workers job satisfaction. It may not appear to be much but it will make a huge difference to people on the shop floor and hopefully my local discount supermarket with be a nicer place for me and the workforce to be.

 

Image http://www.seven-health.com/